PE (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE)
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly (ethylene)) is the most common plastic. The annual global production is around 80 million tons. Its primary use is in packaging (plastic bags, plastic films, geo membranes, containers including bottles, etc.). Many kinds of polyethylene are known, with most having the chemical formula (C2H4) n. PE is usually a mixture of similar polymers of ethylene with various values of n.
Polyethylene is classified by its density and branching. Its mechanical properties depend significantly on variables such as the extent and type of branching, the crystal structure, and the molecular weight. There are several types of polyethylene:
- Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)
- Ultra-low-molecular-weight polyethylene (ULMWPE or PE-WAX)
- High-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE)
- High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
- High-density cross-linked polyethylene (HDXLPE)
- Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX or XLPE)
- Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE)
- Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)
- Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
- Very-low-density polyethylene (VLDPE)
- Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
With regard to sold volumes, the most important polyethylene grades are HDPE, LLDPE, and LDPE.
HDPE is defined by a density of greater or equal to 0.941 g/cm3. HDPE has a low degree of branching. The mostly linear molecules pack together well, so intermolecular forces are stronger than in highly branched polymers. HDPE can be produced by chromium/silica catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts; by choosing catalysts and reaction conditions, the small amount of branching that does occur can be controlled. These catalysts prefer the formation of free radicals at the ends of the growing polyethylene molecules. They cause new ethylene monomers to add to the ends of the molecules, rather than along the middle, causing the growth of a linear chain. HDPE has high tensile strength. It is used in products and packaging such as milk jugs, detergent bottles, butter tubs, garbage containers, and water pipes. One-third of all toys are manufactured from HDPE. In 2007, the global HDPE consumption reached a volume of more than 30 million tons.
LDPE is defined by a density range of 0.910–0.940 g/cm3. LDPE has a high degree of short- and long-chain branching, which means that the chains do not pack into the crystal structure as well. It has, therefore, less strong intermolecular forces as the instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attraction is less. This results in a lower tensile strength and increased ductility. LDPE is created by free-radical polymerization. The high degree of branching with long chains gives molten LDPE unique and desirable flow properties. LDPE is used for both rigid containers and plastic film applications such as plastic bags and film wrap. In 2013, the global LDPE market had a volume of almost US$33 billion. The radical polymerization process used to make LDPE does not include a catalyst that "supervises" the radical sites on the growing PE chains. (In HDPE synthesis, the radical sites are at the ends of the PE chains, because the catalyst stabilizes their formation at the ends.) Secondary radicals (in the middle of a chain) are more stable than primary radicals (at the end of the chain), and tertiary radicals (at a branch point) are more stable yet. Each time an ethylene monomer is added, it creates a primary radical, but often these will rearrange to form more stable secondary or tertiary radicals. Addition of ethylene monomers to the secondary or tertiary sites creates branching.
LLDPE is defined by a density range of 0.915–0.925 g/cm3. LLDPE is a substantially linear polymer with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with shortchain alpha-olefins (for example, 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene). LLDPE has higher tensile strength than LDPE, and it exhibits higher impact and puncture resistance than LDPE. Lower thickness (gauge) films can be blown, compared with LDPE, with better environmental stress-cracking resistance, but is not as easy to process. LLDPE is used in packaging, particularly film for bags and sheets. Lower thickness may be used compared to LDPE. It is used for cable coverings, toys, lids, buckets, containers, and pipe. While other applications are available, LLDPE is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility, and relative transparency. Product examples range from agricultural films, Saran wrap, and bubble wrap, to multilayer and composite films.